Volume 18, Issue 2 (7-2021)                   J Res Dev Nurs Midw 2021, 18(2): 1-4 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print


1- Department of Sport Sciences, Aliabad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, Aliabad Katoul, Iran , saeedghorbani_ur@yahoo.com
2- Department of Sport Sciences, Aliabad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, Aliabad Katoul, Iran
Abstract:   (403 Views)
Background: Due to advances in medicine and technology in recent years, the number of elderly has increased substantially in most countries. As a result, addressing factors influencing the elderly population to improve their physical, psychological, and cognitive status is of great importance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between perceived social support and physical activity with the mood, physical fitness, and cognitive status of elderly people.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from April to September 2019 in Golestan province, Northeast of Iran. The sample consisted of 142 people over 60 years old (including 131 women and 11 men) who were selected using a random sampling method from Gorgan, Gonbad Kavous, Aliabad Katoul, and Azadshahr cities of Golestan province in 2019. Data was gathered using Perceived Social Support Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, Wechsler Memory Scale, Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Rikli and Jones’ physical fitness test for the elderly. Data were analyzed in SPSS-22 and Spearman correlation coefficient used to study the cooperation between variables.
Results: The finding showed that the mean age of participants was 66.56 years old and perceived social support had significant correlation with depression (r=-0.48, P<0.001) and memory (r=0.24, P=0.003). There was a significant correlation between physical activity and physical fitness (r=0.18, P=0.049), but no significant correlation were observed between physical activity with depression and memory. In addition, physical fitness had significant correlation with depression (r=0.27, P=0.001) and memory (r=0.27, P=0.001).
Conclusion: Perceived social support and physical activity can be considered important factors for improving the mood-cognitive-physical status of the elderly. Therefore, gerontologists, physiotherapists, and occupational therapists can improve the mood-cognitive-physical status of the elderly by improving social relationships and physical activity.
Full-Text [PDF 662 kb]   (225 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (41 Views)  

References
1. Cunningham C, O'Sullivan, R, Caserotti, P. Tully, MA. Consequences of physical inactivity in older adults: A systematic review of reviews and meta-analyses. Scandinavian Journal of Science & Medicine in Sports. 2020; DOI: 10.1111/sms.13616. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
2. Manoochehry S, Rasouli H. Iranian population policy and aging: New health concerns. International Journal of Travel Medicine & Global Health. 2017; 5(2): 70-71. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [Google Scholar]
3. Kleisiaris CF, Papathanasiou IV, Tsaras K, Androulakis E, Kourkouta L, et al. Factors affecting the health status of elderly people receiving home care. Achieves of Hellenic Medicine. 2019; 37(2):237-244. [View at paplisher] [Google Scholar]
4. Tariq A, Beihai T, Abbas N, Ali S, Yao W, Imran M. Role perceived social support on the association between physical disability and symptoms of depression in senior citizens of Pakistan. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health. 2020; 17(5):1485. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
5. Bai Y, Bian F, Zhang L, Cao Y. The impact of social support on the health of rural elderly in China. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health. 2020; 17(6):2004. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
6. Niknami S, Izadi Rad H. Social support and mental health among older women in Iranshahr, Iran. Elderly Health Journal. 2017; 3(2):94-98. [View at paplisher] [Google Scholar]
7. Rutter EC, Tyas SL, Maxwell CJ, Law J, O'Connell ME, Konnert CA, et al. Association between functional social support and cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults: a protocol for a systematic review. BMC Open. 2020; 10(4): 10: e037301. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
8. Tajvar M, Grundy E, Fletcher A. Social support and mental health status of older people: a population-based study in Iran-Tehran. Aging & Mental Health. 2018; 22(3):344-353. Doi: 10.1080/13607863.2016.1261800. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
9. Bélanger E, Ahmed T, Vafaei A, Curcio CL, Phillips SP, Zunzunegui MV. Sources of social support associated with health and quality of life: a cross-sectional study among Canadian and Latin American older adults. BMJ Open. 2016; 6(6): e011503. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
10. Tajvar M, Grundy E, Fletcher A. Social support and mental health status of older people: a population-based study in Iran-Tehran. Ageing & Mental Health. 2018; 22(3):344-353. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
11. Turner AJ, Chander H, Knight AC. Falls in geriatric populations and hydrotherapy as an intervention: A brief review. Geriatrics. 2018; 3(4):71. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
12. Lu J, Fu W, Liu Y. Physical activity and cognitive function among older adults in China: a systematic review. Journal of Sport & Health Science. 2016; 5(3):287-96. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
13. Parra-Rizo MA, Sanchis-Soler G. satisfaction with life, subjective well-being and functional skills in active older adults based on their level of physical activity. IJERPH. 2020; 17(4):1299. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
14. De Souza LNN, De Carvalho PHB, Ferreira MEC. Quality of life and subjective well-being of physically active elderly people: A systematic review. JPES. 2018; 18(3):1615-1623. [View at paplisher] [Google Scholar]
15. Soyuer F. Fatigue and physical performance in the elderly aged 65 and over living in a nursing home. International Journal of Family & Community Medicine. 2018; 2(6):371-373. [View at paplisher]
16. Pels F, Kleinert J. Loneliness and physical activity: A systematic review. International Review of Sport & Exercise Psychology. 2016; 9(1):231-260. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [Google Scholar]
17. Xiao Y, Wang H, Zhang T, Ren X. Psychosocial predictors of physical activity and health-related quality of life among Shanghai working adults.Health & Quality of Life Outcomes. 2019; 17:72. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
18. Lindsay Smith GL, Banting L, Eime R, O'Sullivan G, van Uffelen JGZ. The association between social support and physical activity in older adults: A systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017; 14(1):56. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
19. Cheng LA, Mendonca G, Farias Júnior JC. Physical activity in adolescents: Analysis of the social influence of parents and friends. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2014; 90(1):35-41. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
20. He L, Ishii K, Shibata A, Adachi M, Nonoue M, Oka K. Mediation effects of social support on relationships of perceived environment and self-efficacy with school based physical activity: A structural equation model tailored for Japanese adolescent girls. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2013; 3(1):42-50. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [Google Scholar]
21. Faul F, Erdfelder E, Buchner A. Lang AG. Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods. 2009; 41:1149-1160. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
22. Zimet GD, Powell SS, Farley GK, Werkman S, Berkoff KA. Psychometric characteristics of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Journal of Personality Assessment. 1990; 55(3-4). [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
23. Salimi A, Joukar B, Nikpour R. Internet and communication: Perceived social support and loneliness as antecedent variables. Psychological Studies. 2009; 5(3):81-102.[Persian] [View at paplisher] [Google Scholar]
24. Yesavage JA, Brink TL, Rose TL, Lum O, Huang V, Adey M, et al. Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 1982; 17(1):37-49. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [Google Scholar]
25. Malakouti K, Fathollahi P, Mirabzadeh A, Salavati M, Kahani S. Validation of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) in Iran. Research in Medicine. 2006; 30(4):361-9. [Persian] [View at paplisher] [Google Scholar]
26. Wechsler D. Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised manual. New York: Psychological Cooperation Inc. 1987. [View at paplisher]
27. Irandost K, Taheri M, Sogh-al-Islam A. Comparison of the effectiveness of aerobic exercises in water and yoga on memory and dynamic balance of elderly men. Journal of Development & Motor Learning. 2013; 6(4):463-73. [Persian] [View at paplisher]
28. Topolski TD, LoGerfo J, Patrick DL, Williams B, Walwick J, Patrick MB. The Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity (RAPA) among older adults. Preventive Chronic Disease. 2006; 3(4):118. [View at paplisher] [Google Scholar]
29. Hesseberg K, Bentzen H, Bergland A. Reliability of the senior fitness test in community-dwelling older people with cognitive impairment. Physiotherapy Research International. 2015; 20(1):37-44. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
30. Scarmeas N, Stern Y. Cognitive reserve and lifestyle. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology. 2003; 25(5):625-33. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
31. Kelly ME, et al. The impact of social activities, social networks, social support and social relationships on the cognitive functioning of healthy older adults: a systematic review. Systematic Reviews. 2017; 6, 259. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
32. Zhou Z, Wang P, Fang Y. Social engagement and its change are associated with Dementia risk among Chinese older adults: A longitudinal study. Scientific Reports. 2018; 8, 1551. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
33. Mendoza-Núñez VM, González-Mantilla F, Correa-Muñoz E, Retana-Ugalde R. Relationship between social support networks and physical functioning in older community-dwelling Mexicans. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health. 2017; 14:993. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
34. Tomás MT, Galán-Mercant A, Carnero EA and Fernandes B. Functional capacity and levels of physical activity in aging: A 3-year follow-up. Frontiers in Medicine: Geriatric Medicine. 2018; 4:244. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
35. DaskalopoulouC, Stubbs B, Kralj C, Koukounari A, Prince M, Prina AM. Physical activity and healthy ageing: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies. Ageing Research Reviews. 2017; 38:6-17. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
36. Wang HX, Jin Y, Hendrie HC, Liang C, Yang L, Cheng Y, et al. Late life leisure activities and risk of cognitive decline. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences. 2013; 68:205-13. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
37. Ingold M, Tulliani N, Chan CCH, Liu KPY. Cognitive function of older adults engaging in physical activity. BMC Geriatr. 2020; 20:229. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
38. Cooper, R. Objective measures of physical capability and subsequent health: a systematic review. Age & Aging. 2011; 40(1):14-22. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
39. Smiley-Oyen AL, Lowry KA, Francois SJ, Kohut ML, Ekkekakis P. Exercise, fitness, and neurocognitive function in older adults: the "selective improvement" and "cardiovascular fitness" hypotheses. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2008; 36:280-91. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [PMID] [Google Scholar]
40. Radak Z, Kaneko T, Tahara S, Nakamoto H, Pucsok J, Sasvari M, et al. Regular exercise improves cognitive function and decreases oxidative damage in rat brain. Neurochemistry International. 2001; 38(1):17-23. [View at paplisher] [DOI] [Google Scholar]

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.